From Micro to Macro: The Trophic Regulation of a Multispecies Protective Mutualism
From Jeff Layne
Faculty, University of Nevada, Reno
In this presentation, Dr. Elizabeth Pringle explains – and provides examples of – mutualism in the natural world. She defines “mutualism” as an interaction between species in which both species benefit. She lists four kinds of mutualism – animal-mediated seed dispersal, pollination, nutritional, and protective. She illustrates the concept with an example of protective mutualism: ants defending plants that they use for nesting or for food against the plants’ natural enemies, by swarming and biting the enemies.
Recorded: March 3, 2017